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Nutrient

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营养素
  Nutrient ( English : Nutrient, also known as nutrients ) are some of the substances needed by the body .The main body is divided into a large demand for macronutrients and micronutrients smaller demand .Which macronutrients include carbohydrates , fat, fiber , protein and water.Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals .Vitamin and fat-soluble vitamins can be broken down into two major categories of water-soluble vitamins .Fat-soluble vitamins include: vitamin A, D, E, K; soluble vitamins include vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12 , and niacin, folic acid, vitamin C.
 
  Macronutrients, in addition to cellulose and water, mainly to provide energy for the body to Joule (jouls) or calories (calories) to measure. Each gram of carbohydrate or protein provides 4 kcal of energy per gram of fat provides 9 kcal.Other nutrients, including cellulose, water, minerals and vitamins, energy is not available, but with an important role in the body's physiological activity.

Macronutrients

Carbohydrates
Fat
Cellulose
Protein
Water


Micronutrient

Dietary element

  Minerals, also known as inorganic salts and dietary minerals , in addition to carbon, hydrogen , nitrogen and oxygen , is also one of the chemical elements essential organisms , but also constitute human tissues and maintain normal physiological function and biochemical metabolic and other life activities the main element , accounting for 4.4% of body weight .They can be a huge amount of minerals (Require relatively large ) or trace minerals ( less demand ) .They can exist naturally in foods or in the form of the element or mineral is added , such as calcium carbonate or sodium chloride.Some of these additives come from natural sources , such as the ground oyster shells .Sometimes minerals are added to the diet food outside , because vitamin and mineral supplements , and the food in the soil disease called " pica " or "food soil disease ".Appropriate to draw a certain degree of consumption of each mineral is necessary to maintain continuous physical health .The excessive consumption of minerals may lead to draw a direct or indirect disease, attributed to the degree of competition between the characteristics of the body of minerals .For example, the large amount of zinc is not harmful itself , but it can lead to copper deficiency (unless compensated , according to the research program in the elderly eye noted ) .Different geographical areas of soil containing different amounts of minerals.

Massive mineral(RDA > 200 mg / Daily)

Calcium(Ca)
Chlorine(Cl)
Magnesium(Mg)
Phosphorus(P)
Potassium(K)
Sodium(Na)
Sulfur(S)

Trace minerals(RDA < 200 mg / Daily)

Chromium(Cr)
Cobalt(Co)
Copper(Cu)
Fluorine(F)
Iodine(I)
Iron(Fe)
Manganese(Mn)
Molybdenum(Mo)
Selenium(Se)
Zinc(Zn)


Vitamin

  Vitamin ( English : Vitamin) is a series of compounds collectively.They are micro- organisms needed nutrients , and generally can not be produced by the organisms themselves they need to get through diet and other means .That can not produce vitamin like carbohydrates, protein and fat energy , consisting of cells, but their effect on the regulation of the metabolism of the organism .Lack of vitamins can cause serious health problems ; adequate intake of vitamins can keep your body strong and healthy ; excessive intake of vitamins but can cause poisoning.

Vitamin ARetinolRetinalCarotenoid
Vitamin B1Thiamine
Vitamin B2Riboflavin
Vitamin B3Niacin
Vitamin B5Pantothenic acid
Vitamin B6Pyridoxine
Vitamin B7Biotin
Vitamin B9Folic acid
Vitamin B12CobalaminHydroxocobalamin
Vitamin CAscorbic acid
Vitamin D
Vitamin ETocopherol
Vitamin KPhylloquinone


Remark:
RDA:Recommended daily Nutrient intake
 
 
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